Sumedh Meshram

.Net Technical Blog

Inheritance

Inheritance :

  • Inheritance is a way to form new classes (instances of which are called objects) using classes that have already been defined.
  • Inheritance is employed to help reuse existing code with little or no modification.
  • The new classes, known as Sub-class or derived class, inherit attributes and behavior of the pre-existing classes, which are referred to as Super-class or Base class.

C# supports two types of Inheritance mechanisms

  1. Implementation Inheritance
  2. Interface Inheritance

Implementation Inheritance:

When a class (type) is derived from another class (type) such that it inherits all the members of the base type it is Implementation Inheritance

Interface Inheritance:

When a type (class or a struct) inherits only the signatures of the functions from another type it is Interface Inheritance.

Benefits of using Inheritance

  • Once a behavior (method) or property is defined in a super class (base class),that behavior or property is automatically inherited by all subclasses (derived class).
  • Code reusability increased through inheritance
  • Inheritance provide a clear model structure which is easy to understand without much complexity
  • Using inheritance, classes become grouped together in a hierarchical tree structure
  • Code are easy to manage and divided into parent and child classes
public class ParentClass
{
    public ParentClass()
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Parent Constructor.");
    }
    public void print()
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Parent Class.");
    }
}
public class ChildClass : ParentClass
{
    public ChildClass()
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Child Constructor.");
    }
    public static void Main()
    {
        ChildClass child = new ChildClass();
        child.print();
    }
}

Output:

Parent Constructor.

Child Constructor.

Parent Class.

Encapsulation

  • Encapsulation is a procedure of covering up of the data & functions into a single unit called as class 
  • An encapsulated object is often called an abstract data type. 
  • Encapsulation can protect your data from accidental corruption. 
  • Rather than defining the data in the form of public, we can declare those fields as private.

Code Example :

public class School
{
	private string Schooldepartname;
	public string SchoolDepartname
	{
		get
		{
			return Schooldepartname;
		}
		set
		{
			Schooldepartname =value;
		}
	}
}
public class Departmentmain
{
	public static int Main(string[] args)
	{
		School d= new School();
		d.SchoolDepartname="Communication";
		Console.WriteLine("The Dept. Name is :{0}",d.SchoolDepartname);
		return 0;
	}
}

 

Output:

The Dept. Name is : Communication

Benefits of Encapsulation :

  • In Encapsulation fields of a class can be read-only or can be write-only.
  • A class can have control over in its fields.
  • A class can change data type of its fields anytime but users of this class do not need to change any code.

From the above we can see the use of Encapsulation by using properties. The property has two accessor get and set. The get accessor returns the value of the some property field. The set accessor sets the value of the some property field with the contents of "value". Properties can be made read-only. This is accomplished by having only a get accessor in the property implementation.

Abstraction

Abstraction :

  • Abstraction refers to the act of representing essential features without including the background details or explanations.
  • Abstraction defines way to abstract or hide your data and members from outside world.
  • Classes use the concept of abstraction and are defined as a list of abstract attributes.
  • Simply speaking Abstraction is hiding the complexities of your class or struct or in a generic term Type from outer world.
  • This is achieved by means of access specifiers.
Access Modifier Description (who can access)
Private Only members within the same type.  (default for type members)

Protected

Only derived types or members of the same type.
Internal Only code within the same assembly. Can also be code external to object as long as it is in the same assembly.  (default for types)
Protected internal Either code from derived type or code in the same assembly. Combination of protected OR internal.
Public Any code. No inheritance, external type, or external assembly restrictions.

 

Code Example :

namespace AbstractionExample
{
public abstract class Shape
        {
            private float _area;
            private float _perimeter;

            public float Area
            {
                get
                {
                    return _area;
                }
                set
                {
                    _area = value;
                }
            }
            public float Perimeter
            {
                get
                {
                    return _perimeter;
                }
                set
                {
                    _perimeter = value;
                }
            }
            public abstract void CalculateArea();
            public abstract void CalculatePerimeter();
        }
}


Advantages of abstraction : are the hiding of implementation details, component reuse, extensibility, and testability. When we hide implementation details, we reveal a cleaner, more comprehensible and usable interface to our users. We are separating our interface from our implementation, and this makes component reuse more practical. Many, if not all of the object-oriented concepts we have discussed throughout this document play a role in the abstraction principle. Working together, their end goal is the same, to produce software that is flexible, testable, maintainable, and extensible.

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