Sumedh Meshram

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React vs. Angular Compared: Which One Suits Your Project Better?

In the programming world, Angular and React are among the most popular JavaScript frameworks for front-end developers. Moreover, these two – together with Node.js – made it to the top three frameworks used by all software engineers on all programming languages, according to Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2018.

Both of these front-end frameworks are close to equal in popularity, have similar architectures, and are based on JavaScript. So what’s the difference? In this article, we’ll compare React and Angular. Let us start by looking at the frameworks’ general characteristics in the next paragraph. And if you are looking for other React and Angular comparisons, you can review our articles on cross-platform mobile frameworks (including React Native), or comparison of Angular with other front-end frameworks.

Angular and React.js: A Brief Description

Angular is a front-end framework powered by Google and is compatible with most of the common code editors. It’s a part of the MEAN stack, a free open-source JavaScript-centered toolset for building dynamic websites and web applications. It consists of the following components: MongoDB (a NoSQL database), Express.js (a web application framework), Angular or AngularJS (a front-end framework), and Node.js (a server platform).

The Angular framework allows developers to create dynamic, single-page web applications (SPAs). When Angular was first released, its main benefit was its ability to turn HTML-based documents into dynamic content. In this article, we focus on the newer versions of Angular, commonly referred to as Angular 2+ to address its distinction from AngularJS. Angular is used by Forbes, WhatsApp, Instagram,, HBO, Nike, and more.

React.js is an open source JavaScript library created by Facebook in 2011 for building dynamic user interfaces. React is based on JavaScript and JSX, a PHP extension developed by Facebook, that allows for the creation of reusable HTML elements for front-end development. React has React Native, a separate cross-platform framework for mobile development. We provide an in-depth review of both React.js and  React Native in our related article linked above. React is used by Netflix, PayPal, Uber, Twitter, Udemy, Reddit, Airbnb, Walmart, and more.

Toolset: Framework vs. Library

The framework ecosystem defines how seamless the engineering experience will be. Here, we’ll look at the main tools commonly used with Angular and React. First of all, React is not really a framework, it’s a library. It requires multiple integrations with additional tools and libraries. With Angular you already have everything to start building an app.

React vs. Angular

React and Angular in a nutshell


Angular comes with many features out of the box:

  • RxJS is a library for asynchronous programming that decreases resource consumption by setting multiple channels of data exchange. The main advantage of RxJS is that it allows for simultaneous handling of events independently. But the problem is that while RxJS can operate with many frameworks, you have to learn the library to fully utilize Angular.

  • Angular CLI is a powerful command-line interface that assists in creating apps, adding files, testing, debugging, and deployment.

  • Dependency injection - The framework decouples components from dependencies to run them in parallel and alter dependencies without reconfiguring components.

  • Ivy renderer - Ivy is the new generation of the Angular rendering engine that significantly increases performance.

  • Angular Universal is a technology for server-side rendering, which allows for rapid rendering of the first app page or displaying apps on devices that may lack resources for browser-side rendering, like mobile devices.

  • AptanaWebStormSublime TextVisual Studio Code are code editors commonly used with Angular.

  • JasmineKarma, and Protractor are the tools for end-to-end testing and debugging in a browser.


React requires multiple integrations and supporting tools to run.

  • Redux is a state container, which accelerates the work of React in large applications. It manages components in applications with many dynamic elements and is also used for rendering. Additionally, React works with a wider Redux toolset, which includes Reselect, a selector library for Redux, and the Redux DevTools Profiler Monitor.

  • Babel is a transcompiler that converts JSX into JavaScript for the application to be understood by browsers.

  • Webpack - As all components are written in different files, there’s a need to bundle them for better management. Webpack is considered a standard code bundler.

  • React Router - The Router is a standard URL routing library commonly used with React.

  • Similar to Angular, you’re not limited in terms of code choice. The most common editors are Visual Studio Code, Atom, and Sublime Text.

  • Unlike in Angular, in React you can’t test the whole app with a single tool. You must use separate tools for different types of testing. React is compatible with the following tools:

This toolset is also supplied by Reselect DevTools for debugging and visualization and React Extension for Chrome React Developer Tools and React Developer Tools for Firefox and React Sight that visualizes state and prop trees.

Generally, both tools come with robust ecosystems and the user gets to decide which is better. While React is generally easier to grasp, it will require multiple integrations like Redux to fully leverage its capacities.

Component-Based Architecture: Reusable and Maintainable Components With Both Tools

Both frameworks have component-based architectures. That means that an app consists of modular, cohesive, and reusable components that are combined to build user interfaces. Component-based architecture is considered to be more maintainable than other architectures used in web development. It speeds up development by creating individual components that let developers adjust and scale applications with a low time to market.

Code: TypeScript vs. JavaScript and JSX

Angular uses theTypeScript language (but you can also use JavaScript if needed). TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript fit for larger projects. It’s more compact and allows for spotting mistakes in typing. Other advantages of TypeScript include better navigation, autocompletion, and faster code refactoring. Being more compact, scalable, and clean, TypeScript is perfect for large projects of enterprise scale.

React uses JavaScript ES6+ and JSX script. JSX is a syntax extension for JavaScript used to simplify UI coding, making JavaScript code look like HTML. The use of JSX visually simplifies code which allows for detecting errors and protecting code from injections. JSX is also used for browser compilation via Babel, a compiler that translates the code into the format that a web browser can read. JSX syntax performs almost the same functions as TypeScript, but some developers find it too complicated to learn.

DOM: Real vs. Virtual

Document Object Model (DOM) is a programming interface for HTML, XHTML, or XML documents, organized in the form of a tree that enables scripts to dynamically interact with the content and structure of a web document and update them.

There are two types of DOMs: virtual and real. Traditional or real DOM updates the whole tree structure, even if the changes take place in one element, while the virtual DOM is a representation mapped to a real DOM that tracks changes and updates only specific elements without affecting the other parts of the whole tree.










The HTML DOM tree of objects 
Source: W3Schools

React uses a virtual DOM, while Angular operates on a real DOM and uses change detection to find which components need updates.

While the virtual DOM is considered to be faster than real DOM manipulations, the current implementations of change detection in Angular make both approaches comparable in terms of performance.

Data Binding: Two-Way vs. Downward (One-Way)

Data binding is the process of synchronizing data between the model (business logic) and the view (UI). There are two basic implementations of data binding: one-directional and two-directional. The difference between one- and two-way data binding lies in the process of model-view updates.

Data binding


One- and two-way data binding

Two-way data binding in Angular is similar to the Model-View-Controller architecture, where the Model and the View are synchronized, so changing data impacts the view and changing the view triggers changes in the data.

React uses one-way, or downward, data binding. One-way data flow doesn’t allow child elements to affect the parent elements when updated, ensuring that only approved components change. This type of data binding makes the code more stable, but requires additional work to synchronize the model and view. Also, it takes more time to configure updates in parent components triggered by changes in child components.

One-way data binding in React is generally more predictable, making the code more stable and debugging easier. However, traditional two-way data binding in Angular is simpler to work with.

App Size and Performance: Angular Has a Slight Advantage

AngularJS is famous for its low performance when you deal with complex and dynamic applications. Due to the virtual DOM, React apps perform faster than AngularJS apps of the same size.

However, newer versions of Angular are slightly faster compared to React and Redux, according to Jacek Schae’s research at Also, Angular has a smaller app size compared to React with Redux in the same research. Its transfer size is 129 KB, while React + Redux is 193 KB.

speed tests

Speedtest (ms)
Source: Freecodecamp

The recent updates to Angular made the competition between the two even tenser as Angular no longer falls short in terms of speed or app size.

Pre-Built UI Design Elements: Angular Material vs. Community-Backed Components

Angular. The Material Design language is increasingly popular in web applications. So, some engineers may benefit from having the Material toolset out of the box. Angular has pre-built material design components. Angular Material has a range of them that implement common interaction patterns: form controls, navigation, layout, buttons and indicators, pop-ups and modules, and data tables. The presence of pre-built elements makes configuring UIs much faster.

React. On the other hand, most of the UI tools for React come from its community. Currently, the UI components section on the React portal provides a wide selection of free components and some paid ones. Using material design with React demands slightly more effort: you must install the Material-UI Library and dependencies to build it. Additionally, you can check for Bootstrap components built with React and other packages with UI components and toolsets.

Mobile Portability: NativeScript vs. React Native

Both frameworks come with additional tools that allow engineers to port the existing web applications to mobile apps. We’ve provided a deep analysis and comparison of both NativeScript (Angular) and React Native. Let’s briefly recap the main points.

NativeScript. NativeScript is a cross-platform mobile framework that uses TypeScript as the core language. The user interface is built with XML and CSS. The tool allows for sharing about 90 percent of code across iOS and Android, porting the business logic from web apps and using the same skill set when working with UIs. The philosophy behind NativeScript is to write a single UI for mobile and slightly adjust it for each platform if needed. Unlike hybrid cross-platform solutions that use WebView rendering, the framework runs apps in JavaScript virtual machines and directly connects to native mobile APIs which guarantees high performance comparable to native apps.

React Native. The JavaScript framework is a cross-platform implementation for mobile apps that also enables portability from web. React Native takes a slightly different approach compared to NativeScript: RN’s community is encouraged to write individual UIs for different platforms and adhere to the "learn once, write everywhere" approach. Thus, the estimates of code sharing are around 70 percent. React Native also boasts native API rendering like NativeScript but requires building additional bridge API layers to connect the JavaScript runtime with native controllers.

Generally, both frameworks are a great choice if you need to run both web and mobile apps with the same business logic. While NativeScript is more focused on code sharing and reducing time-to-market, the ideas behind React Native suggest longer development terms but are eventually closer to a native look and feel.

Documentation and Vendor Support: Insufficient Documentation Offset by Large Communities

Angular was created by Google and the company keeps developing the Angular ecosystem. Since January 2018, Google has provided the framework with LTS (Long-Term Support) that focuses on bug fixing and active improvements. Despite the fast development of the framework, the documentation updates aren’t so fast. To make the Angular developer’s life easier, there’s an interactive service that allows you to define the current version of the framework and the update target to get a checklist of update activities.

Angular updates

Unfortunately, the service doesn’t help with transitioning legacy AngularJS applications to Angular 2+ as there’s no simple way to do this

AngularJS documentation and tutorials are still praised by the developers as they provide broader coverage than that of Angular 2+. Considering that AngularJS is outdated, this is hardly a benefit. Some developers also express concerns about the pace of SLI documentation updates.

The React community is experiencing a similar documentation problem. When working with React, you have to prepare yourself for changes and constant learning. The React environment and the ways of operating it updates quite often. React has some documentation for the latest versions, but keeping up with all changes and integrations isn’t a simple task. However, this problem is somewhat neutralized by the community support. React has a large pool of developers ready to share their knowledge on thematic forums.

Learning Curve: Much Steeper for Angular

The learning curve of Angular is considered to be much steeper than of React. Angular is a complex and verbose framework with many ways to solve a single problem. It has intricate component management that requires many repetitive actions.

As we mentioned above, the framework is constantly under development, so the engineers have to adapt to these changes. Another problem of Angular 2+ versions is the use of TypeScript and RxJS. While TypeScript is close to JavaScript, it still takes some time to learn. RxJS will also require much effort to wrap your mind around.

While React also requires constant learning due to frequent updates, it’s generally friendlier to newcomers and doesn’t require much time to learn if you’re already good with JavaScript. Currently, the main learning curve problem with React is the Redux library. About 60 percent of applications built with React use it and eventually learning Redux is a must for a React engineer. Additionally, React comes with useful and practical tutorials for beginners.

Community and Acceptance: Both Are Widely Used and Accepted

React remains more popular than Angular on GitHub. It has 113,719 stars and 6,467 views, while Angular has only 41,978 and 3,267 stars and views. But according to the 2018 Stack Overflow Developer Survey, the number of developers working with Angular is slightly larger: 37.6 percent of users compared to 28.3 percent of React users. It’s worth mentioning that the survey covers both AngularJS and Angular 2+ engineers.

most used frameworks and tools of 2018

The most popular frameworks
Source: Stack Overflow

Angular is actively supported by Google. The company keeps developing the Angular ecosystem and since January 2018, it has provided the framework with LTS (Long-Term Support).

However, Angular also leads in a negative way. According to the same survey, 45.6 percent of developers consider it to be among the most dreaded frameworks. This negative feedback on Angular is probably impacted by the fact that many developers still use AngularJS, which has more problems than Angular 2+. But still, Angular’s community is larger.

The numbers are more optimistic for React. Just 30.6 percent of professional developers don’t want to work with it.

Which Framework Should You Choose?

The base idea behind Angular is to provide powerful support and a toolset for a holistic front-end development experience. Continuous updates and active support from Google hint that the framework isn’t going anywhere and the engineers behind it will keep on fighting to preserve the existing community and make developers and companies switch from AngularJS to a newer Angular 2+ with high performance and smaller app sizes. TypeScript increases the maintainability of code, which is becoming increasingly important as you reach enterprise-scale applications. But this comes with the price of a steep learning curve and a pool of developers churning towards React.

React gives a much more lightweight approach for developers to quickly hop on work without much learning. While the library doesn’t dictate the toolset and approaches, there are multiple instruments, like Redux, that you must learn in addition. Currently, React is comparable in terms of performance to Angular. These aspects make for broader developer appeal.

Originally published on AltexSoft Tech Blog "React vs. Angular Compared: Which One Suits Your Project Better?"

What is CI/CD?

Continuous integration (CI) and continuous delivery (CD) are common terms in software production. But do you know what they mean?

What does "continuous" mean?

Continuous is used to describe many different processes that follow the practices I describe here. It doesn't mean "always running." It does mean "always ready to run." In the context of creating software, it also includes several core concepts/best practices. These are:

  • Frequent releases: The goal behind continuous practices is to enable delivery of quality software at frequent intervals. Frequency here is variable and can be defined by the team or company. For some products, once a quarter, month, week, or day may be frequent enough. For others, multiple times a day may be desired and doable. Continuous can also take on an "occasional, as-needed" aspect. The end goal is the same: Deliver software updates of high quality to end users in a repeatable, reliable process. Often this may be done with little to no interaction or even knowledge of the users (think device updates).

  • Automated processes: A key part of enabling this frequency is having automated processes to handle nearly all aspects of software production. This includes building, testing, analysis, versioning, and, in some cases, deployment.

  • Repeatable: If we are using automated processes that always have the same behavior given the same inputs, then processing should be repeatable. That is, if we go back and enter the same version of code as an input, we should get the same set of deliverables. This also assumes we have the same versions of external dependencies (i.e., other deliverables we don't create that our code uses). Ideally, this also means that the processes in our pipelines can be versioned and re-created (see the DevOps discussion later on).

  • Fast processing: "Fast" is a relative term here, but regardless of the frequency of software updates/releases, continuous processes are expected to process changes from source code to deliverables in an efficient manner. Automation takes care of much of this, but automated processes may still be slow. For example, integrated testing across all aspects of a product that takes most of the day may be too slow for product updates that have a new candidate release multiple times per day.

What is a "continuous delivery pipeline"?


The different tasks and jobs that handle transforming source code into a releasable product are usually strung together into a software "pipeline" where successful completion of one automatic process kicks off the next process in the sequence. Such pipelines go by many different names, such as continuous delivery pipeline, deployment pipeline, and software development pipeline. An overall supervisor application manages the definition, running, monitoring, and reporting around the different pieces of the pipeline as they are executed.


How does a continuous delivery pipeline work?

The actual implementation of a software delivery pipeline can vary widely. There are a large number and variety of applications that may be used in a pipeline for the various aspects of source tracking, building, testing, gathering metrics, managing versions, etc. But the overall workflow is generally the same. A single orchestration/workflow application manages the overall pipeline, and each of the processes runs as a separate job or is stage-managed by that application. Typically, the individual "jobs" are defined in a syntax and structure that the orchestration application understands and can manage as a workflow.

Jobs are created to do one or more functions (building, testing, deploying, etc.). Each job may use a different technology or multiple technologies. The key is that the jobs are automated, efficient, and repeatable. If a job is successful, the workflow manager application triggers the next job in the pipeline. If a job fails, the workflow manager alerts developers, testers, and others so they can correct the problem as quickly as possible. Because of the automation, errors can be found much more quickly than by running a set of manual processes. This quick identification of errors is called "fail fast" and can be just as valuable in getting to the pipeline's endpoint.

What is meant by "fail fast"?

One of a pipeline's jobs is to quickly process changes. Another is to monitor the different tasks/jobs that create the release. Since code that doesn't compile or fails a test can hold up the pipeline, it's important for the users to be notified quickly of such situations. Fail fast refers to the idea that the pipeline processing finds problems as soon as possible and quickly notifies users so the problems can be corrected and code resubmitted for another run through the pipeline. Often, the pipeline process can look at the history to determine who made that change and notify the person and their team.

Do all parts of a continuous delivery pipeline have to be automated?

Nearly all parts of the pipeline should be automated. For some parts, it may make sense to have a spot for human intervention/interaction. An example might be for user-acceptance testing (having end users try out the software and make sure it does what they want/expect). Another case might be deployment to production environments where groups want to have more human control. And, of course,human intervention is required if the code isn't correct and breaks.

With that background on the meaning of continuous, let's look at the different types of continuous processing and what each means in the context of a software pipeline.

What is continuous integration?

Continuous integration (CI) is the process of automatically detecting, pulling, building, and (in most cases) doing unit testing as source code is changed for a product. CI is the activity that starts the pipeline (although certain pre-validations—often called "pre-flight checks"—are sometimes incorporated ahead of CI).

The goal of CI is to quickly make sure a new change from a developer is "good" and suitable for further use in the code base.

How does continuous integration work?

The basic idea is having an automated process "watching" one or more source code repositories for changes. When a change is pushed to the repositories, the watching process detects the change, pulls down a copy, builds it, and runs any associated unit tests.

How does continuous integration detect changes?

These days, the watching process is usually an application like Jenkins that also orchestrates all (or most) of the processes running in the pipeline and monitors for changes as one of its functions. The watching application can monitor for changes in several different ways. These include:

  • Polling: The monitoring program repeatedly asks the source management system, "Do you have anything new in the repositories I'm interested in?" When the source management system has new changes, the monitoring program "wakes up" and does its work to pull the new code and build/test it.

  • Periodic: The monitoring program is configuredto periodically kick off a build regardless of whether there are changes or not. Ideally, if there are no changes, then nothing new is built, so this doesn't add much additional cost.

  • Push: This is the inverse of the monitoring application checking with the source management system. In this case, the source management system is configured to "push out" a notification to the monitoring application when a change is committed into a repository. Most commonly, this can be done in the form of a "webhook"—a program that is "hooked" to run when new code is pushed and sends a notification over the internet to the monitoring program. For this to work, the monitoring program must have an open port that can receive the webhook information over the internet.

What are "pre-checks" (aka pre-flight checks)?

Additional validations may be done before code is introduced into the source repository and triggers continuous integration. These follow best practices such as test builds and code reviews. They are usually built into the development process before the code is introduced in the pipeline. But some pipelines may also include them as part of their monitored processes or workflows.

As an example, a tool called Gerrit allows for formal code reviews, validations, and test builds after a developer has pushed code but before it is allowed into the (Git remote) repository. Gerrit sits between the developer's workspace and the Git remote repository. It "catches" pushes from the developer and can do pass/fail validations to ensure they pass before being allowed to make it into the repository. This can include detecting the proposed change and kicking off a test build (a form of CI). It also allows for groups to do formal code reviews at that point. In this way, there is an extra measure of confidence that the change will not break anything when it is merged into the codebase.

What are "unit tests"?

Unit tests (also known as "commit tests") are small, focused tests written by developers to ensure new code works in isolation. "In isolation" here means not depending on or making calls to other code that isn't directly accessible nor depending on external data sources or other modules. If such a dependency is required for the code to run, those resources can be represented by mocks. Mocks refer to using a code stub that looks like the resource and can return values but doesn't implement any functionality.

In most organizations, developers are responsible for creating unit tests to prove their code works. In fact, one model (known as test-driven development [TDD]) requires unit tests to be designed first as a basis for clearly identifying what the code should do. Because such code changes can be fast and numerous, they must also be fast to execute.

As they relate to the continuous integration workflow, a developer creates or updates the source in their local working environment and uses the unit tests to ensure the newly developed function or method works. Typically, these tests take the form of asserting that a given set of inputs to a function or method produces a given set of outputs. They generally test to ensure that error conditions are properly flagged and handled. Various unit-testing frameworks, such as JUnit for Java development, are available to assist.

What is continuous testing?

Continuous testing refers to the practice of running automated tests of broadening scope as code goes through the CD pipeline. Unit testing is typically integrated with the build processes as part of the CI stage and focused on testing code in isolation from other code interacting with it.

Beyond that, there are various forms of testing that can/should occur. These can include:

  • Integration testing validates that groups of components and services all work together.

  • Functional testing validates the result of executing functions in the product are as expected.

  • Acceptance testing measures some characteristic of the system against acceptable criteria. Examples include performance, scalability, stress, and capacity.

All of these may not be present in the automated pipeline, and the lines between some of the different types can be blurred. But the goal of continuous testing in a delivery pipeline is always the same: to prove by successive levels of testing that the code is of a quality that it can be used in the release that's in progress. Building on the continuous principle of being fast, a secondary goal is to find problems quickly and alert the development team. This is usually referred to as fail fast.

Besides testing, what other kinds of validations can be done against code in the pipeline?

In addition to the pass/fail aspects of tests, applications exist that can also tell us the number of source code lines that are exercised (covered) by our test cases. This is an example of a metric that can be computed across the source code. This metric is called code-coverage and can be measured by tools (such as JaCoCo for Java source).

Many other types of metrics exist, such as counting lines of code, measuring complexity, and comparing coding structures against known patterns. Tools such as SonarQube can examine source code and compute these metrics. Beyond that, users can set thresholds for what kind of ranges they are willing to accept as "passing" for these metrics. Then, processing in the pipeline can be set to check the computed values against the thresholds, and if the values aren't in the acceptable range, processing can be stopped. Applications such as SonarQube are highly configurable and can be tuned to check only for the things that a team is interested in.

What is continuous delivery?

Continuous delivery (CD) generally refers to the overall chain of processes (pipeline) that automatically gets source code changes and runs them through build, test, packaging, and related operations to produce a deployable release, largely without any human intervention.

The goals of CD in producing software releases are automation, efficiency, reliability, reproducibility, and verification of quality (through continuous testing).

CD incorporates CI (automatically detecting source code changes, executing build processes for the changes, and running unit tests to validate), continuous testing (running various kinds of tests on the code to gain successive levels of confidence in the quality of the code), and (optionally) continuous deployment (making releases from the pipeline automatically available to users).

How are multiple versions identified/tracked in pipelines?

Versioning is a key concept in working with CD and pipelines. Continuous implies the ability to frequently integrate new code and make updated releases available. But that doesn't imply that everyone always wants the "latest and greatest." This may be especially true for internal teams that want to develop or test against a known, stable release. So, it is important that the pipeline versions objects that it creates and can easily store and access those versioned objects.

The objects created in the pipeline processing from the source code can generally be called artifacts. Artifacts should have versions applied to them when they are built. The recommended strategy for assigning version numbers to artifacts is called semantic versioning. (This also applies to versions of dependent artifacts that are brought in from external sources.)

Semantic version numbers have three parts: major, minor, and patch. (For example, 1.4.3 reflects major version 1, minor version 4, and patch version 3.) The idea is that a change in one of these parts represents a level of update in the artifact. The major version is incremented only for incompatible API changes. The minor version is incremented when functionalityis added in a backward-compatible manner. And the patch version is incremented when backward-compatible bug fixes are made. These are recommended guidelines, but teams are free to vary from this approach, as long as they do so in a consistent and well-understood manner across the organization. For example, a number that increases each time a build is done for a release may be put in the patch field.

How are artifacts "promoted"?

Teams can assign a promotion "level" to artifacts to indicate suitability for testing, production, etc. There are various approaches. Applications such as Jenkins or Artifactory can be enabled to do promotion. Or a simple scheme can be to add a label to the end of the version string. For example, -snapshot can indicate the latest version (snapshot) of the code was used to build the artifact. Various promotion strategies or tools can be used to "promote" the artifact to other levels such as -milestone or -production as an indication of the artifact's stability and readiness for release.

How are multiple versions of artifacts stored and accessed?

Versioned artifacts built from source can be stored via applications that manage "artifact repositories." Artifact repositories are like source management for built artifacts. The application (such as Artifactory or Nexus) can accept versioned artifacts, store and track them, and provide ways for them to be retrieved.

Pipeline users can specify the versions they want to use and have the pipeline pull in those versions.

What is continuous deployment?

Continuous deployment (CD) refers to the idea of being able to automatically take a release of code that has come out of the CD pipeline and make it available for end users. Depending on the way the code is "installed" by users, that may mean automatically deploying something in a cloud, making an update available (such as for an app on a phone), updating a website, or simply updating the list of available releases.

An important point here is that just because continuous deployment can be done doesn't mean that every set of deliverables coming out of a pipeline is always deployed. It does mean that, via the pipeline, every set of deliverables is proven to be "deployable." This is accomplishedin large part by the successive levels of continuous testing (see the section on Continuous Testing in this article).

Whether or not a release from a pipeline run is deployed may be gated by human decisions and various methods employed to "try out" a release before fully deploying it.

What are some ways to test out deployments before fully deploying to all users?

Since having to rollback/undo a deployment to all users can be a costly situation (both technically and in the users' perception), numerous techniques have been developed to allow "trying out" deployments of new functionality and easily "undoing" them if issues are found. These include:

Blue/green testing/deployments

In this approach to deploying software, two identical hosting environments are maintained — a blue one and a green one. (The colors are not significant and only serves as identifers.) At any given point, one of these is the production deployment and the other is the candidate deployment.

In front of these instances is a router or other system that serves as the customer “gateway” to the product or application. By pointing the router to the desired blue or green instance, customer traffic can be directed to the desired deployment. In this way, swapping out which deployment instance is pointed to (blue or green) is quick, easy, and transparent to the user.

When a new release is ready for testing, it can be deployed to the non-production environment. After it’s been tested and approved, the router can be changed to point the incoming production traffic to it (so it becomes the new production site). Now the hosting environment that was production is available for the next candidate.

Likewise, if a problem is found with the latest deployment and the previous production instance is still deployed in the other environment, a simple change can point the customer traffic back to the previous production instance — effectively taking the instance with the problem “offline” and rolling back to the previous version. The new deployment with the problem can then be fixed in the other area.

Canary testing/deployment

In some cases, swapping out the entire deployment via a blue/green environment may not be workable or desired. Another approach is known as canary testing/deployment. In this model, a portion of customer traffic is rerouted to new pieces of the product. For example, a new version of a search service in a product may be deployed alongside the current production version of the service. Then, 10% of search queries may be routed to the new version to test it out in a production environment.

If the new service handles the limited traffic with no problems, then more traffic may be routed to it over time. If no problems arise, then over time, the amount of traffic routed to the new service can be increased until 100% of the traffic is going to it. This effectively “retires” the previous version of the service and puts the new version into effect for all customers.

Feature toggles

For new functionality that may need to be easily backed out (in case a problem is found), developers can add a feature toggle. This is a software if-then switch in the code that only activates the code if a data value is set. This data value can be a globally accessible place that the deployed application checks to see whether it should execute the new code. If the data value is set, it executes the code; if not, it doesn't.

This gives developers a remote "kill switch" to turn off the new functionality if a problem is found after deployment to production.

Dark launch

In this practice, code is incrementally tested/deployed into production, but changes are not made visible to users (thus the "dark" name). For example, in the production release, some portion of web queries might be redirected to a service that queries a new data source. This information can be collected by development for analysis—without exposing any information about the interface, transaction, or results back to users.

The idea here is to get real information on how a candidate change would perform under a production load without impacting users or changing their experience. Over time, more load can be redirected until either a problem is found or the new functionality is deemed ready for all to use. Feature flags can be used actually to handle the mechanics of dark launches.

What is DevOps?

DevOps is a set of ideas and recommended practices around how to make it easier for development and operational teams to work together on developing and releasing software. Historically, development teams created products but did not install/deploy them in a regular, repeatable way, as customers would do. That set of install/deploy tasks (as well as other support tasks) were left to the operations teams to sort out late in the cycle. This often resulted in a lot of confusion and problems, since the operations team was brought into the loop late in the cycle and had to make what they were given work in a short timeframe. As well, development teams were often left in a bad position—because they had not sufficiently tested the product's install/deploy functionality, they could be surprised by problems that emerged during that process.

This often led to a serious disconnect and lack of cooperation between development and operations teams. The DevOps ideals advocate ways of doing things that involve both development and operations staff from the start of the cycle through the end, such as CD.

How does CD intersect with DevOps?

The CD pipeline is an implementation of several DevOps ideals. The later stages of a product, such as packaging and deployment, can always be done on each run of the pipeline rather than waiting for a specific point in the product development cycle. As well, both development and operations staff can clearly see when things work and when they don't, from development to deployment. For a cycle of a CD pipeline to be successful, it must pass through not only the processes associated with development but also the ones associated with operations.

Carried to the next level, DevOps suggests that even the infrastructure that implements the pipeline be treated like code. That is, it should be automatically provisioned, trackable, easy to change, and spawn a new run of the pipeline if it changes. This can be done by implementing the pipeline as code.

What is "pipeline-as-code"?

Pipeline-as-code is a general term for creating pipeline jobs/tasks via programming code, just as developers work with source code for products. The goal is to have the pipeline implementation expressed as code so it can be stored with the code, reviewed, tracked over time, and easily spun up again if there is a problem and the pipeline must be stopped. Several tools allow this, including Jenkins 2.

How does DevOps impact infrastructure for producing software?

Traditionally, individual hardware systems used in pipelines were configured with software (operating systems, applications, development tools, etc.) one at a time. At the extreme, each system was a custom, hand-crafted setup. This meant that when a system had problems or needed to be updated, that was frequently a custom task as well. This kind of approach goes against the fundamental CD ideal of having an easily reproducible and trackable environment.

Over the years, applications have been developed to standardize provisioning (installing and configuring) systems. As well, virtual machines were developed as programs that emulate computers running on top of other computers. These VMs require a supervisory program to run them on the underlying host system. And they require their own operating system copy to run.

Next came containers. Containers, while similar in concept to VMs, work differently. Instead of requiring a separate program and a copy of an OS to run, they simply use some existing OS constructs to carve out isolated space in the operating system. Thus, they behave similarly to a VM to provide the isolation but don't require the overhead.

Because VMs and containers are created from stored definitions, they can be destroyed and re-created easily with no impact to the host systems where they are running. This allows a re-creatable system to run pipelines on. Also, for containers, we can track changes to the definition file they are built from—just as we would for source code.

Thus, if we run into a problem in a VM or container, it may be easier and quicker to just destroy and re-create it instead of trying to debug and make a fix to the existing one.

This also implies that any change to the code for the pipeline can trigger a new run of the pipeline (via CI) just as a change to code would. This is one of the core ideals of DevOps regarding infrastructure.

How Do Gantt Charts Make Project Managers’ Lives Easier?

Do you want to have a way to see how tasks are progressing? Want to see what roles are there in a project and how others depend on them? If you’ve always wanted a quick view of how far behind or ahead of schedule your project is, then it’s time for Gantt charts.

We believe that you might have already heard about Gantt charts considering their popularity in the project management domain. As a new project manager or team leader, it’s absolutely fair on your part to have some apprehensions about them.

Fret not, we are going to clear all your doubts regarding Gantt charts, the benefits they offer, and their purpose in project management in this post. Before that, let’s learn a little bit about their history.

Historical Background

People often think that Henry Gantt was the man behind the Gantt charts, but in reality, it was Karol Adamiecki, a Polish engineer who devised these charts for better planning in 1896.

Adamiecki published his work only in Polish and Russian and the first ever Gantt chart was named as the Harmonogram. After some years, Gantt started working on these charts and made them popular, thus the name "Gantt charts."

Why Use Gantt Charts in Project Management

The best thing about Gantt charts is that they are sufficient in equipping you with the right tools to plan, manage, and schedule projects. Gantt chart software also helps you to automate processes, create dependencies, add milestones, and identify critical paths.

A Visual Timeline of Tasks

Gantt charts provide a visual timeline of the project so that you can schedule your tasks, plan, and iterate your projects quickly and more efficiently. One gets to see an overview of milestones and other important information that provides a clear picture of who’s working on what and other deadlines related to them. Such information plays a key role in effective project planning and tracking by bringing together everything you need to meet deadlines and deliver projects successfully.

Keeps Everyone on The Same Page

With Gantt charts, you get a unified view of all the projects at one central place, making it easy for you to handle team planning and scheduling. Also, the visual nature of these charts makes it easier for people working together to set mutually agreed upon efforts and work in unison to achieve the desired goal. It reduces any chances of misunderstanding among team members while working on difficult tasks as everyone is already on the same page.

A Better Understanding of Task Relationships

Often, a task is both dependent and related to other tasks as well. These charts help you understand how various tasks are interrelated. They also help you set dependencies between different tasks to reflect how a change in their scheduling is going to impact the overall project progress of a project. With a better understanding of task relationships, one can assure optimum workflow and maximized productivity.

Allocate Resources Effectively

A Gantt chart software helps you delegate work items to different people and allocate resources in a way without overloading anyone. By appropriately following the chart, you can adjust or share resources if someone in a team needs help. If resources know what to do when and are managed properly, there is a better chance of completing the project on time and within the desired budget, too.

Seamless Communication

Anyone working on a project doesn’t have to run to another team member to ask a question; you can communicate easily and seamlessly with a Gantt chart software. Once a plan is devised, approved, and started, forget about remembering who’s working on what as the visual nature of Gantt charts tell everything you need to know at one place. That’s how Gantt charts have made things easier and stress-free for project managers so that they can focus on getting things done.

Track the Project Progress

Whether your project is small or complex, one of the crucial things for a project manager is to see how a project is progressing and whether things are on track or not. Gantt charts show the complete percentage of every task being handled by team members that give an estimation of the time needed to get tasks done. Gantt charts are indeed one of the safest bets to predict the project progress and see if you need to change your strategy or not.

More Accountability

Every Gantt chart software comes with easy drag-and-drop for efficient scheduling. Whether it’s about scheduling start and end dates to rescheduling them or setting dependencies, everything works well with Gantt charts. Team members get a sense of accountability while moving tasks and the task completion bar constantly reminds them to deliver a project before the deadline.

More Clarity, Less Confusion

Gantt charts are simple and straightforward. Apart from its intuitiveness, they use the critical chain to highlight important tasks. Gantt charts highlight the critical path that helps you identify tasks which are directly impacting the overall progress of a project. The clarity helps team members to know what’s working and what’s not so that they can change their strategy to achieve their goals. This lessens the confusion and brings more clarity in the process.

Complete Projects on Time

As Gantt charts provide a unified view of tasks, projects, and resources, they help you focus your precious time, effort, and brainpower on things that actually matter. When team members visualize their efforts in a project and how the progress of the entire project is somehow dependent on them, it provides real motivation to them.

Stay Ahead Always

Not only one can stay on top of things with Gantt charts but they also help project managers to stay ahead of their schedule if they follow Gantt charts precisely. Project managers can analyze the team performance and figure out patterns that must be readjusted for better output.


By now you might have understood the importance of Gantt charts in a project manager’s life. However, if your work revolves around complex projects, you might want to go for a task management software that enables more than using a Gantt chart. There are many project management solutions with elaborated features to choose from. Get a free trial, and make the best choice.

Reference :

What is the Most Popular Blockchain in the World?

Blockchain technology in on the rise and so are its applications, thanks to Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency for making blockchain a household name. The blockchain is not just an application. It is a technology that promises to bring trust, transparency, and accountability to digital transactions. Blockchain technology can be applied to almost any industry that involves digital transactions.

Most Popular Blockchain

In this article, I will review some of the most popular blockchains in the word.

If you’re new to Blockchain, I recommend start reading What Is Blockchain Technology.

Blockchain starts with Bitcoin. Bitcoin is one of the most searched keywords in Google. The following chart shows the popularity of blockchains.


The following Table lists the Top 15 most popular blockchains in the world. The report is based on the past 90 days of activity.




(Last 90 days)

Global volume

Traffic Rank




















































































































Please note, this report is based on an algorithm and data collected from various sources on the Internet. The rankings may change over time.

The Score of a blockchain is calculated based on the following factors.


  1. Keyword searches in Google
  2. Social media followers on various platforms
  3. Community size on platforms such as Twitter, Telegram, Discord
  4. Articles and content are written on the blockchain
  5. Market adoption and valuation
  6. CMC ranking
  7. Buzzwords and talk on the Web
  8. Meetup, user group events, hackathons, and conference participations


#1. Bitcoin 


Bitcoin King of Blockchain 

Bitcoin is the king of the blockchain. Bitcoin is the mother of all cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin is the reason we’re talking about blockchain today. Bitcoin was created by Satoshi Nakamoto and was released on Jan 9, 2009. Bitcoin is written in C++ programming language. Bitcoin project is an open source software project available to download from Github. Several cryptocurrencies have been created using the Bitcoin project and protocol. Blockchain has a limited supply of 21 million bitcoins.

Bitcoin is also a cryptocurrency, also known as digital currency, that is used for digital payments. Bitcoin’s market symbol is BTC. As of now, Bitcoin’s market cap is $64 billion. At one point in Jan 2018, Bitcoin’s market cap reached close to $330 billion when 1 BTC was close to US $21,000. Currently, 1 BTC trades around $3,600 according to CMC.

Bitcoin blockchain also has several forks. Some of the most popular Bitcoin forks are Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin SV, Bitcoin Gold, and Bitcoin Diamond.

Bitcoin is an open source project available on Github for the public to download and get involved. Any developer can contribute to Bitcoin project. Thousands of developers have download Bitcoin project and have created their own versions of cryptocurrencies from the project.

Bitcoin was one of the most searched words on Google in 2018. Bitcoin’s global volume per month is 11 million searches with keyword difficulty of 96. The United States it the most popular country for Bitcoin followed by Germany, India, UK, and Brazil.

Bitcoin Global Volume 


Google Trends shows a significant drop in blockchain products searches from Jan 2018 to Jan 2019. The following graph shows a chart for Bitcoin, Ripple, Ethereum, EOS, and NEO from Jan 2018 to Jan 2019 and as you can see, the popularity of keywords have dropped to almost 95% within a year.

Blockchain Google TrendsIf you want to learn more about Bitcoin, check out What Is Bitcoin In Simplified Terms. 

#2. Ethereum 

Ethereum Blockchain 


Ethereum was created by Vitalik Buterin, Gavin Wood, and Joseph Lubin and was released to the public in 2015. Ethereum is written in Go, C++, and Rust.

Ethereum calls itself the “BLOCKCHAIN APP PLATFORM”. Ethereum is a decentralized software platform designed to create and execute digital smart contracts. Ethereum uses a new programming language called Solidity to write smart contracts. Ethereum blockchain is executed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).

Ethereum has a cryptocurrency called Ether. Ether is the underlying token that fuels the Ethereum blockchain network. Ether’s public symbol is ETH. As of now, Current market cap of Ethereum is $13 billion. Currently, 1 ETH trades around $126 according to CMC. 

#3. EOSIO 

EOSIO Blockchain 


EOS.IO, authored by Daniel Larimer and Brendan Blumer, was developed by a private company, EOS was released to the public in 2018.

EOSIO calls itself “The most powerful infrastructure for decentralized applications”. EOS is an open source blockchain protocol that simulates an operating system and computer and allows developers to build decentralized software applications. EOS.IO is written in C++.

EOSIO is open source licensed under MIT software license. The software provides accounts, authentication, databases, asynchronous communication and the scheduling of applications across multiple CPU cores and/or clusters. The resulting technology is a blockchain architecture that has the potential to scale to millions of transactions per second, eliminates user fees and allows for quick and easy deployment of decentralized applications. 

#4. NEO 

NEO Blockchain 


NEO was authored by Da Hongfei and Erik Zhang and was released to the public in 2014. NEO is a blockchain platform and a cryptocurrency. NEO blockchain is designed to build decentralized apps.

NEO’s tagline is “An Open Network For Smart Economy”. NEO is an open source blockchain project available to download on Github. NEO is written in C#. NEO supports major popular programming languages including C#, JavaScript, Python, Java and Go.

NEO blockchain uses NEO tokens on the network that generates GAS tokens. GAS tokens are used to pay for transactions on the network. 

#5. TRON 

TRON Blockchain 


Raybo was founded in 2014 in Beijing and became China’s first blockchain company. TRON foundation was established in Singapore in 2017 and in Dec 2017, TRON launched its open source protocol. Justin Sun is the founder and CEO of TRON. TRON launched its MainNet on May 31, 2018.

TRON wants to “DECENTRALIZE THE WEB” and brands itself as, one of the largest blockchain-based operating systems in the world.


Key features of TRON are high throughput, high scalability, and high availability. TRON prides itself in higher TPS rate of 2,000 transactions per second, compared to Ethereum and Bitcoin at 35 TPS and 6 TPS per second.




This article lists the top 15 blockchains in the world based on their popularity. Bitcoin is the most popular blockchain in the world.

If you’re new to the blockchain, start with “What is Blockchain” and then read “Do I Need a Blockchain.”  

Further Blockchain Readings 

This article lists the top 15 blockchains in the world based on their popularity. Bitcoin is the most popular blockchain in the world.

What Is Blockchain

Do You Need a Blockchain

Top 5 Blockchain Programming Languages 



  • Wikipedia
  • Respective blockchain products websites and their documentation
  • Various traffic analytics and reporting tools
  • Social media websites
  • Community websites and discussion groups

5 Trends In Fintech You Will See In 2019

5 Trends In Fintech You Will See In 2019


This year, the word “fintech” was mentioned in a Union Budget speech for the first time ever. It was an ambiguous 20th-century portmanteau. Today, fintech has pervaded our daily lives, impacting everyday money decisions. Fintech is the way to go for the financial empowerment of hundreds of millions of Indians.

Here’s how I feel 2019 would progress for the industry.

Consumer Traction Will Continue To Grow

More and more Indians will continue to turn to the internet to solve their money management problems. For millennials born in the age of the internet, their Internet-connected smartphones will be the gateway to the financial services industry.

Not just that, the number of internet users in India will continue to grow at a rapid pace: 500 Mn in 2018 as per IAMAI projections, and 700 Mn by 2020, as per other projections. Fintech will continue to churn out solutions for the internet-connected Indian.

Short-Term Lending To Gain Pace

Payday loans – short-term, unsecured loans – have been around for long in the west. But they’ve only recently started becoming popular in India. You’ll see not just the proliferation of lending startups but also see mainstream banks evolving short-term lending products.


Paperless Is Accelerating

The only way forward for fintech is paperless. A consumer should be able to buy her financial service from her smartphone, paperlessly, presence-lessly, without having to submit a sheet of paper or meeting a bank salesperson.

The Aadhaar verdict this year has shaped how eKYC for new account openings is done. New techniques of eKYC have also evolved, and we’re expecting to see some of them in action soon. For example, you may be able to complete your verification through video KYC.

Work is also going on towards making offline Aadhaar a possibility, wherein a user would be able to control the Aadhaar information she wishes to share with a service provider via XML. Offline Aadhaar will allow authentication without biometrics or the sharing of the Aadhaar number.

PMLA Amendments To Enable Paperless Banking

The Modi government has made amendments to the Telegraph Act as well as the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, following the Supreme Court’s Aadhaar verdict. This will pave way for the voluntary use of Aadhaar for new phone connections and bank accounts.

Therefore, not only will customers be able to instantly open accounts, there are now steeper penalties on entities who misuse Aadhaar data or business who withhold services for not sharing Aadhaar.

India is rapidly moving to paperless, presence-less delivery of financial products. With more first-time internet users entering the market, expect more developments and innovation in the customer onboarding space.

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